Changes between Initial Version and Version 1 of TracFastCgi


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Timestamp:
Aug 9, 2009, 6:33:38 PM (11 years ago)
Author:
trac
Comment:

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  • TracFastCgi

    v1 v1  
     1= Trac with FastCGI =
     2
     3Since version 0.9, Trac supports being run through the [http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI] interface. Like [wiki:TracModPython mod_python], this allows Trac to remain resident, and is faster than external CGI interfaces which must start a new process for each request. However, unlike mod_python, it is able to support [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/suexec.html SuEXEC]. Additionally, it is supported by much wider variety of web servers.
     4
     5'''Note for Windows:''' Trac's FCGI does not run under Windows, as Windows does not implement `Socket.fromfd`, which is used by `_fcgi.py`. If you want to connect to IIS, your choice may be [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP].
     6
     7== Simple Apache configuration ==
     8
     9There are two FastCGI modules commonly available for Apache: `mod_fastcgi` and
     10`mod_fcgid`.  The `FastCgiIpcDir` and `FastCgiConfig` directives discussed
     11below are `mod_fastcgi` directives; the `DefaultInitEnv` is a `mod_fcgid`
     12directive.
     13
     14For `mod_fastcgi`, add the following to an appropriate Apache configuration
     15file:
     16{{{
     17# Enable fastcgi for .fcgi files
     18# (If you're using a distro package for mod_fcgi, something like
     19# this is probably already present)
     20<IfModule mod_fastcgi.c>
     21   AddHandler fastcgi-script .fcgi
     22   FastCgiIpcDir /var/lib/apache2/fastcgi
     23</IfModule>
     24LoadModule fastcgi_module /usr/lib/apache2/modules/mod_fastcgi.so
     25}}}
     26Setting `FastCgiIpcDir` is optional if the default is suitable. Note that the `LoadModule` line must be after the `IfModule` group.
     27
     28Configure `ScriptAlias` or similar options as described in TracCgi, but
     29calling `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`.
     30
     31You can set up the `TRAC_ENV` as an overall default:
     32{{{
     33FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV=/path/to/env/trac
     34}}}
     35
     36Or you can serve multiple Trac projects in a directory like:
     37{{{
     38FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR=/parent/dir/of/projects
     39}}}
     40
     41But neither of these will work for `mod_fcgid`.  A similar but partial
     42solution for `mod_fcgid` is:
     43{{{
     44DefaultInitEnv TRAC_ENV /path/to/env/trac/
     45}}}
     46But this cannot be used in `Directory` or `Location` context, which makes it
     47difficult to support multiple projects.
     48
     49A better method which works for both of these modules (and for  [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd] and CGI as well), because it involves
     50no server configuration settings for environment variables, is to set one
     51of the variables in `trac.fcgi`, e.g.:
     52{{{
     53import os
     54os.environ['TRAC_ENV'] = "/path/to/projectenv"
     55}}}
     56or
     57{{{
     58import os
     59os.environ['TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR'] = "/path/to/project/parent/dir"
     60}}}
     61
     62Using this method, different projects can be supported by using different
     63`.fcgi` scripts with different `ScriptAliases`, copying and appropriately
     64renaming `trac.fcgi` and adding the above code to create each such script.
     65
     66See [https://coderanger.net/~coderanger/httpd/fcgi_example.conf this fcgid example config] which uses a !ScriptAlias directive with trac.fcgi with a trailing / like this:
     67{{{
     68ScriptAlias / /srv/tracsite/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi/
     69}}}
     70
     71== Simple Cherokee Configuration ==
     72
     73Configuration wanted.
     74
     75== Simple Lighttpd Configuration ==
     76
     77The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd].
     78
     79lighttpd is a secure, fast, compliant and very flexible web-server that has been optimized for high-performance
     80environments.  It has a very low memory footprint compared to other web servers and takes care of CPU load.
     81
     82For using `trac.fcgi`(prior to 0.11) / fcgi_frontend.py (0.11) with lighttpd add the following to your lighttpd.conf:
     83{{{
     84#var.fcgi_binary="/path/to/fcgi_frontend.py" # 0.11 if installed with easy_setup, it is inside the egg directory
     85var.fcgi_binary="/path/to/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi" # 0.10 name of prior fcgi executable
     86fastcgi.server = ("/trac" =>
     87   
     88                   ("trac" =>
     89                     ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi.sock",
     90                      "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
     91                      "check-local" => "disable",
     92                      "bin-environment" =>
     93                        ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv")
     94                     )
     95                   )
     96                 )
     97}}}
     98
     99Note that you will need to add a new entry to `fastcgi.server` for each separate Trac instance that you wish to run. Alternatively, you may use the `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` variable instead of `TRAC_ENV` as described above,
     100and you may set one of the two in `trac.fcgi` instead of in `lighttpd.conf`
     101using `bin-environment` (as in the section above on Apache configuration).
     102
     103For using two projects with lighttpd add the following to your `lighttpd.conf`:
     104{{{
     105fastcgi.server = ("/first" =>
     106                   ("first" =>
     107                    ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi-first.sock",
     108                     "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
     109                     "check-local" => "disable",
     110                     "bin-environment" =>
     111                       ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv-first")
     112                    )
     113                  ),
     114                  "/second" =>
     115                    ("second" =>
     116                    ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi-second.sock",
     117                     "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
     118                     "check-local" => "disable",
     119                     "bin-environment" =>
     120                       ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv-second")
     121                    )
     122                  )
     123                )
     124}}}
     125Note that field values are different.  If you prefer setting the environment
     126variables in the `.fcgi` scripts, then copy/rename `trac.fcgi`, e.g., to
     127`first.fcgi` and `second.fcgi`, and reference them in the above settings.
     128Note that the above will result in different processes in any event, even
     129if both are running from the same `trac.fcgi` script.
     130{{{
     131#!div class=important
     132'''Note''' It's very important the order on which server.modules are loaded, if mod_auth is not loaded '''BEFORE''' mod_fastcgi, then the server will fail to authenticate the user.
     133}}}
     134For authentication you should enable mod_auth in lighttpd.conf 'server.modules', select auth.backend and auth rules:
     135{{{
     136server.modules              = (
     137...
     138  "mod_auth",
     139...
     140)
     141
     142auth.backend               = "htpasswd"
     143
     144# Separated password files for each project
     145# See "Conditional Configuration" in
     146# http://trac.lighttpd.net/trac/file/branches/lighttpd-merge-1.4.x/doc/configuration.txt
     147
     148$HTTP["url"] =~ "^/first/" {
     149  auth.backend.htpasswd.userfile = "/path/to/projenv-first/htpasswd.htaccess"
     150}
     151$HTTP["url"] =~ "^/second/" {
     152  auth.backend.htpasswd.userfile = "/path/to/projenv-second/htpasswd.htaccess"
     153}
     154
     155# Enable auth on trac URLs, see
     156# http://trac.lighttpd.net/trac/file/branches/lighttpd-merge-1.4.x/doc/authentication.txt
     157
     158auth.require = ("/first/login" =>
     159                ("method"  => "basic",
     160                 "realm"   => "First project",
     161                 "require" => "valid-user"
     162                ),
     163                "/second/login" =>
     164                ("method"  => "basic",
     165                 "realm"   => "Second project",
     166                 "require" => "valid-user"
     167                )
     168               )
     169
     170
     171}}}
     172Note that lighttpd (I use version 1.4.3) stopped if password file doesn't exist.
     173
     174Note that lighttpd doesn't support 'valid-user' in versions prior to 1.3.16.
     175
     176Conditional configuration is also useful for mapping static resources, i.e. serving out images and CSS directly instead of through FastCGI:
     177{{{
     178# Aliasing functionality is needed
     179server.modules += ("mod_alias")
     180
     181# Setup an alias for the static resources
     182alias.url = ("/trac/chrome/common" => "/usr/share/trac/htdocs")
     183
     184# Use negative lookahead, matching all requests that ask for any resource under /trac, EXCEPT in
     185# /trac/chrome/common, and use FastCGI for those
     186$HTTP["url"] =~ "^/trac(?!/chrome/common)" {
     187# Even if you have other fastcgi.server declarations for applications other than Trac, do NOT use += here
     188fastcgi.server = ("/trac" =>
     189                   ("trac" =>
     190                     ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi.sock",
     191                      "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
     192                      "check-local" => "disable",
     193                      "bin-environment" =>
     194                        ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv")
     195                     )
     196                   )
     197                 )
     198}
     199}}}
     200The technique can be easily adapted for use with multiple projects by creating aliases for each of them, and wrapping the fastcgi.server declarations inside conditional configuration blocks.
     201Also there is another way to handle multiple projects and it's to use TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR instead of TRAC_ENV and use global auth, let's see an example:
     202{{{
     203#  This is for handling multiple projects
     204  alias.url       = ( "/trac/" => "/path/to/trac/htdocs/" )
     205
     206  fastcgi.server += ("/projects"  =>
     207                      ("trac" =>
     208                        (
     209                          "socket" => "/tmp/trac.sock",
     210                          "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
     211                          "check-local" => "disable",
     212                          "bin-environment" =>
     213                            ("TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR" => "/path/to/parent/dir/of/projects/" )
     214                        )
     215                      )
     216                    )
     217#And here starts the global auth configuration
     218  auth.backend = "htpasswd"
     219  auth.backend.htpasswd.userfile = "/path/to/unique/htpassword/file/trac.htpasswd"
     220  $HTTP["url"] =~ "^/projects/.*/login$" {
     221    auth.require = ("/" =>
     222                     (
     223                       "method"  => "basic",
     224                       "realm"   => "trac",
     225                       "require" => "valid-user"
     226                     )
     227                   )
     228  }
     229}}}
     230
     231Changing date/time format also supported by lighttpd over environment variable LC_TIME
     232{{{
     233fastcgi.server = ("/trac" =>
     234                   ("trac" =>
     235                     ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi.sock",
     236                      "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
     237                      "check-local" => "disable",
     238                      "bin-environment" =>
     239                        ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv",
     240                        "LC_TIME" => "ru_RU")
     241                     )
     242                   )
     243                 )
     244}}}
     245For details about languages specification see [trac:TracFaq TracFaq] question 2.13.
     246
     247Other important information like [http://trac.lighttpd.net/trac/wiki/TracInstall this updated TracInstall page], [wiki:TracCgi#MappingStaticResources and this] are useful for non-fastcgi specific installation aspects.
     248
     249If you use trac-0.9, read [http://lists.edgewall.com/archive/trac/2005-November/005311.html about small bug]
     250
     251Relaunch lighttpd, and browse to `http://yourhost.example.org/trac` to access Trac.
     252
     253Note about running lighttpd with reduced permissions:
     254
     255  If nothing else helps and trac.fcgi doesn't start with lighttpd settings __server.username = "www-data"__, __server.groupname = "www-data"__, then in the `bin-environment` section set `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` to the home directory of `www-data` or some other directory accessible to this account for writing.
     256
     257
     258== Simple !LiteSpeed Configuration ==
     259
     260The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.litespeedtech.com/ LiteSpeed].
     261
     262!LiteSpeed web server is an event-driven asynchronous Apache replacement designed from the ground-up to be secure, scalable, and operate with minimal resources. !LiteSpeed can operate directly from an Apache config file and is targeted for business-critical environments.
     263
     264Setup
     265
     2661) Please make sure you have first have a working install of a Trac project. Test install with “tracd” first.
     267
     2682) Create a Virtual Host for this setup. From now on we will refer to this vhost as TracVhost. For this tutorial we will be assuming that your trac project will be accessible via:
     269
     270{{{
     271http://yourdomain.com/trac/
     272}}}
     273
     2743) Go “TracVhost → External Apps” tab and create a new “External Application”.
     275
     276{{{
     277Name: MyTracFCGI       
     278Address: uds://tmp/lshttpd/mytracfcgi.sock
     279Max Connections: 10
     280Environment: TRAC_ENV=/fullpathto/mytracproject/ <--- path to root folder of trac project
     281Initial Request Timeout (secs): 30
     282Retry Timeout (secs): 0
     283Persistent Connection   Yes
     284Connection Keepalive Timeout: 30
     285Response Bufferring: No
     286Auto Start: Yes
     287Command: /usr/share/trac/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi  <--- path to trac.fcgi
     288Back Log: 50
     289Instances: 10
     290}}}
     291
     2924) Optional. If you need to use htpasswd based authentication. Go to “TracVhost → Security” tab and create a new security “Realm”.
     293
     294{{{
     295DB Type: Password File
     296Realm Name: MyTracUserDB               <--- any name you wish and referenced later
     297User DB Location: /fullpathto/htpasswd <--- path to your htpasswd file
     298}}}
     299
     300If you don’t have a htpasswd file or don’t know how to create the entries within one, go to http://sherylcanter.com/encrypt.php, to generate the user:password combos.
     301
     3025) Go to “PythonVhost → Contexts” and create a new “FCGI Context”.
     303
     304{{{
     305URI: /trac/                              <--- URI path to bind to python fcgi app we created   
     306Fast CGI App: [VHost Level] MyTractFCGI  <--- select the trac fcgi extapp we just created
     307Realm: TracUserDB                        <--- only if (4) is set. select realm created in (4)
     308}}}
     309
     3106) Modify /fullpathto/mytracproject/conf/trac.ini
     311
     312{{{
     313#find/set base_rul, url, and link variables
     314base_url = http://yourdomain.com/trac/ <--- base url to generate correct links to
     315url = http://yourdomain.com/trac/      <--- link of project
     316link = http://yourdomain.com/trac/     <--- link of graphic logo
     317}}}
     318
     3197) Restart !LiteSpeed, “lswsctrl restart”, and access your new Trac project at:
     320
     321{{{
     322http://yourdomain.com/trac/
     323}}}
     324
     325=== Simple Nginx Configuration ===
     326
     3271) Nginx configuration snippet - confirmed to work on 0.5.36
     328{{{
     329    server {
     330        listen       10.9.8.7:443;
     331        server_name  trac.example;
     332
     333        ssl                  on;
     334        ssl_certificate      /etc/ssl/trac.example.crt;
     335        ssl_certificate_key  /etc/ssl/trac.example.key;
     336
     337        ssl_session_timeout  5m;
     338
     339        ssl_protocols  SSLv2 SSLv3 TLSv1;
     340        ssl_ciphers  ALL:!ADH:!EXPORT56:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP;
     341        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers   on;
     342
     343        location / {
     344            auth_basic            "trac realm";
     345            auth_basic_user_file /home/trac/htpasswd;
     346
     347            # full path
     348            if ($uri ~ ^/([^/]+)(/.*)) {
     349                 set $script_name $1;
     350                 set $path_info $2;
     351            }
     352
     353            # index redirect
     354            if ($uri ~ ^/([^/]+)$) {
     355                 rewrite (.+) $1/ permanent;
     356            }
     357         
     358            # socket address
     359            fastcgi_pass   unix:/home/trac/run/instance.sock;
     360
     361            # python - wsgi specific
     362            fastcgi_param HTTPS on;
     363
     364            ## WSGI REQUIRED VARIABLES
     365            # WSGI application name - trac instance prefix.
     366            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        /$script_name;
     367            fastcgi_param  PATH_INFO          $path_info;
     368
     369            ## WSGI NEEDED VARIABLES - trac warns about them
     370            fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method;
     371            fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        $server_name;
     372            fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
     373            fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;
     374
     375            # for authentication to work
     376            fastcgi_param  REMOTE_USER        $remote_user;
     377        }
     378    }
     379}}}
     380
     3812) Modified trac.fcgi:
     382
     383{{{
     384#!/usr/bin/env python
     385import os
     386sockaddr = '/home/trac/run/instance.sock'
     387os.environ['TRAC_ENV'] = '/home/trac/instance'
     388
     389try:
     390     from trac.web.main import dispatch_request
     391     import trac.web._fcgi
     392
     393     fcgiserv = trac.web._fcgi.WSGIServer(dispatch_request,
     394          bindAddress = sockaddr, umask = 7)
     395     fcgiserv.run()
     396
     397except SystemExit:
     398    raise
     399except Exception, e:
     400    print 'Content-Type: text/plain\r\n\r\n',
     401    print 'Oops...'
     402    print
     403    print 'Trac detected an internal error:'
     404    print
     405    print e
     406    print
     407    import traceback
     408    import StringIO
     409    tb = StringIO.StringIO()
     410    traceback.print_exc(file=tb)
     411    print tb.getvalue()
     412
     413}}}
     414
     4153) reload nginx and launch trac.fcgi like that:
     416
     417{{{
     418trac@trac.example ~ $ ./trac-standalone-fcgi.py
     419}}}
     420
     421The above assumes that:
     422 * There is a user named 'trac' for running trac instances and keeping trac environments in its home directory.
     423 * /home/trac/instance contains a trac environment
     424 * /home/trac/htpasswd contains authentication information
     425 * /home/trac/run is owned by the same group the nginx runs under
     426  * and if your system is Linux the /home/trac/run has setgid bit set (chmod g+s run)
     427  * and patch from ticket #T7239 is applied, or you'll have to fix the socket file permissions every time
     428
     429Unfortunately nginx does not support variable expansion in fastcgi_pass directive.
     430Thus it is not possible to serve multiple trac instances from one server block.
     431
     432If you worry enough about security, run trac instances under separate users.
     433
     434Another way to run trac as a FCGI external application is offered in ticket #T6224
     435
     436----
     437See also TracCgi, TracModPython, TracInstall, TracGuide, [trac:TracNginxRecipe TracNginxRecipe]